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The CS series electrochemical workstation is a general potentiostat/ galvanostat/ FRA designed for general purpose electrochemical measurements. The instrument contains a fast digital function generator, highspeed data acquisition circuitry, a potentiostat and a galvanostat (select models). The potential control range is ±10V and the current range is ±2A. The instrument is capable of measuring current down to picoamperes. The instrument is capable of a wide variety of electrochemical techniques, and is available with integrated simulation and fitting software functions for both impedance and cyclic voltammetry. These features provide powerful tools for electrochemical mechanistic studies, such as for potentiostat battery charge and discharge, supercapacitor. etc.
CS studio software provides users a versatile smoothing/differential/ integration
1. Impedance (EIS)
CS potentiostat applies correlation integral algorithm and dual-channel over-sampling technique, and has strong anti-interference ability. It is suitable for EIS measurements of high- impedance system (>109Ω, such as coating, concrete etc.). It can also be used to obtain Mott-Schottky curve and differential capacitance curve. During test, the software can display real-time open circuit potential(OCP) without entering.
Left: EIS of AA6063 Al alloy in Ce3+ containing 3% NaCl solution
Right: Polarization curve of Ti-based amorphous alloy & stainless steel in 3%NaCl solution
2. Polarization curve
It can complete linear polarization curve and Tafel plot measurements. The user can set the anodic reversal current (passivation film breakdown current) of the cyclic polarization curve to determine material's pitting potential and protection potential and evaluate the its susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. The software employs non-linear fitting to analyze polarization curve, and can make fast evaluation of material’s anti-corrosion ability and inhibitors.
It can do the following electroanalysis methods: Linear Sweep Voltammetry(LSV), Cyclic Voltammetry(CV), Staircase Cyclic Voltammetry(SCV), Square wave voltammetry(SWV), Differential Pulse Voltammetry(DPV), Normal Pulse Voltammetry(NPV), AC voltammetry(ACV), Stripping voltammetry etc. It can complete calculation of the integrated peak area, peak current and standard curve
Left: LSV curve: mesoporous carbon material in 0.1M KOH
Right: CV curves of PPy supercapacitor in 0.5 mol/L H2SO4
4. Electrochemical Noise
With high-resistance follower and zero-resistance ammeter, it measures the natural potential/current fluctuations in corrosion system. It can be used to study pitting corrosion, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking etc. Through noise spectrum, we can evaluate the inducement, growth and death of metastable pitting and crack. Based on calculation of noise resistance and pitting index, it can complete localized corrosion monitoring.
Electrochemical noise of low-carbon steel in 0.05mol/L Cl-+0.1mol/L NaHCO3 (right)
5. Full floating measurement
CS workstation uses full-floating working electrode. It can be used for autoclave electrochemical measurements, on-line corrosion monitoring of metallic components under the ground (rebar in concrete, etc.)
6. User-defined methods
CS workstation supports user-defined combination measurements. The user can set cyclic timing measurements of an electrochemical method or several methods.
We are able to provide API functions and development examples, which facilitates some users’ requirements for secondary development and self-defined measurements.
Battery Charge and Discharge
Two-electrode system(button battery charge and discharge)
Power specimen,Polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion , Conductive additives, binder, copper foil, dissepiment, electrolyte plate, button battery shell, shim
1. Weighing powder specimen, polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion, conductive additives and binder, well mix them to slurry, lay copper foil on a glass plate,Pour the slurry over copper foil, rapid pulping use glass bars with aluminium tape, try to be as smooth and firm as possible, to smooth the slurry over copper foil, put the coated electrode material in the 80 ℃ oven to dry it, after that, make holes with a hole punch after drying. Remove the electrode sheet with tweezers, weighing, select about 10 pieces of similar quality electrode plate .
2. Put electrodes material, dissepiment, electrolyte, button battery shell.,etc into glove box, the order of assembly is: lithium battery shell, shim, electrode plate, electrolyte, dissepiment,electrolyte, electrode plate, shim, lithium battery shell, Seal with a sealing device. Note that the electrode plate other shim should be placed in the middle to avoid short-circuited.
Parameter set up of battery charge and discharge
Input charging I, discharge I, charge / discharge final voltage, cycle number, mass of active material, begin the test by click ok at the parameter setting interface. As shown in the figure below, set up the charging I to 1 mA, the discharging I to -1mA (Note: charging I / discharging I = current density (eg. Set up 1A/g) * mass of active material (eg.1mg), discharging I should be negative), The charging-discharging if Potential are 0 and 1.6V. The cycle times are 5000, the mass of active materials is 1 mg. The results of different charging-discharging I can be measured by adjusting the current.
During the test, two windows will appear in the test interface, the charging-discharging potential-time diagram and the charging-discharging efficiency diagram, save two data files at the same time: cor. and dat. suffix data files, if the amount of data is large, it will automatically be divided into multiple data files, named 1 / 2 respectively, where cor. data file is the data result of point-current-time, be available with open via TXT documents and CS studio software, dat.data file contains information such as charging / discharging efficiency and specific capacitance, which can be opened and imported into the drawing software by using TXT documents.
Set up interface
Galvanostatic charging/discharging test interface
Data processing and analysis
Open data file: file-Open file, select data file. The results of the test will show the results of multiple cycles of data. As shown in the selection sequence, the second cycle data can be selected from the second cycle to the second cycle. Data analysis-data export, the second cycle of data can be stored separately for later stage mapping, but also can save multiple cycles data at the same time, such as the 4995th to 5000th cycles of data.
Select the specified number of cycles
fig7. 1A/g Test results of Long-term Stability of Galvanostatic charging and discharging
From figure 7, it can be seen that after 5000 cycles, the capacitance keeps 83.4% of the initial capacitance, the performance decline is obvious.
Set up different charging-discharging current, take the second cycle data to figure out the rate charging-discharging potential timing chart under different charging-discharging current, as shown in figure below. From the diagram, we can see that the potential-time diagram is a symmetrical triangle, and with the increase of charge and discharge current, the symmetrical characteristic of triangle is satisfying, the surface material has good rapid charge-discharge performance.
Fig 8.charge and discharge rate test results